Chinese 'Signed and Sealed'

Signed and Sealed logo - this site is devoted to the visual arts and contains a quantity of pictures
A unique and highly original portfolio of
Fine Art Lithographs by Pat Elliott Shircore
created from the original documents
marking the beginning and end of Hong Kong's colonial history

Main Page | The Pictures | Picture Details | Exhibitions | Enquiries | Links | Sources   History   Contents

Treaty of Nanking, the People, 1842

Figured Satin


detail of double signatory page


Chop of the Emperor Taou Kwang

The signing of the Treaty of Nanking, or Nanjing as it is now called, took place on board the H.M.S. Cornwallis, with Sir Henry Pottinger  as Plenipotentiary for Queen Victoria's government and Marquis Ch'i-Ying as senior Plenipotentiary, along with Emissaries Yilipu and Niu Kien for the Ch'ing Emperor Taou Kwang.


The personal chop of His Excellency the Emperor Taou Kwang. It measures about four inches square, much larger than other Chinese chops. All chops and seals were designed in much the same way as bank notes now are, with very intricate details in order to make forgery virtually impossible.

Ch'i-Ying, during his first visit to Hong Kong.

Chinese signatures to the Treaty


  Engraving of Sir Henry Pottinger

Signature of Sir Henry Pottinger

Ch'i-Ying (centre), during his first visit to Hong Kong. The Marquis was closely related to the Emperor and also a personal friend. The Manchu Ch'ing emperors were renowned for their distrust of anyone outside the Manchu inner circle but Ch'i-Ying - or Keying, as he appears on the original document - was a statesman highly respected by his countrymen and foreigners alike. Known for his good-humour and dignity, his signature (above, right character) reflects his cultured and stylish personality.   Sir Henry Pottinger (above), a brisk and uncompromising Irishman, was chosen to negotiate the Treaty as a replacement for Charles Elliott, whose regard for the Chinese was seen as a disadvantage. The British felt that a strong hand was needed and this Pottinger provided, along with his years of experience with the East India Company and the Political Service. His signature, below, is remarkable for its forthright thrust, very different from the usual copperplate style.

Go to History Pages Index

(Go to next page - the Tsungli Yamen)

button Top of Page

button Contents

button Main Page

button The Pictures

button Sales Room

button Enquiries

button Links

Signed and Sealed
email us